Most cable companies require a set-top box to view their cable channels, even on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, and an output cable from the box is attached to the television, usually the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs. Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel that is being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels, usually traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box.[1] The cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set, even unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
There are also usually "upstream" channels on the cable to send data from the customer box to the cable headend, for advanced features such as requesting pay-per-view shows or movies, cable internet access, and cable telephone service. The "downstream" channels occupy a band of frequencies from approximately 50 MHz to 1 GHz, while the "upstream" channels occupy frequencies of 5 to 42 MHz. Subscribers pay with a monthly fee. Subscribers can choose from several levels of service, with "premium" packages including more channels but costing a higher rate. At the local headend, the feed signals from the individual television channels are received by dish antennas from communication satellites. Additional local channels, such as local broadcast television stations, educational channels from local colleges, and community access channels devoted to local governments (PEG channels) are usually included on the cable service. Commercial advertisements for local business are also inserted in the programming at the headend (the individual channels, which are distributed nationally, also have their own nationally oriented commercials).
With Sling, there’s no more waiting on a show to air—you can watch it live like with cable or satellite, except you’re watching over the internet! The basic package includes 30 live channels like AMC, CNN, ESPN, ESPN2, HGTV, and Disney Channel. You can get a slightly different lineup of networks for $25, or get both for $40. There are also $5–10 add-on packages for sports fans, movie buffs and your little ones. So if ESPN is the only reason you’re clinging to your cable box, you may be out of excuses now!
If streaming is, indeed, just New Television — or, perhaps more accurately, Old Television Again But Arguably More Expensive And More Complicated — then what benefit does that actually have for the end-user? The material has migrated to platforms where the audience already exists, but in a more unwieldy fashion that all but eliminates the free-view option of broadcast television, limiting its potential audience and penalizing low-income customers.
You don’t have to give up TV entirely to put some savings away. If you like traditional cable, satellite, or fiber TV, consider bundling or going with a smaller channel lineup. If you need only basic local channels, try out OTA TV. And if you’re looking for more flexibility than cable television can offer, see if you can affordably go the streaming live TV route.
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For supporters of teams outside your local area, some sport-specific streaming options might also be attractive. Each major sports league offers some sort of online viewing option for somewhere in the neighborhood of $110 a year, with the caveat that local games are blacked out. (NFL fans can pay only $69.99 to watch any team they like, but must make do with replays.)
I hate to be a downer but I think I see some things coming that are a continuation of manipulation of the content consumers (us) get, with how we can view and how we will still have what we pay maximized over us. I think that the content providers are likely going to give us a complete on demand service so we won’t have to mess with a dvr system. But guess what, that then gives the providers full control over what exactly is provided. What I mean is they are going to make sure we cannot move to where we want timewise in a program easily and we certainly can only avoid some of the commercials if any of them. The content providers are going to make sure any deal they make requires this kind of thing and allows for no in house dvr systems. I have to watch some programming on the nbc sports site (on demand) and it is an eyeopener as to how awful and controlled that viewing experience is.

Because the content you get with any of these cable-replacement services, especially local channels, can vary by region, you should go to each company’s website, plug in your ZIP code, and see which channels are available in your area. These video streaming services have been adding more local broadcast channels, such as ABC and CBS, but they’re not always available in smaller markets.


Pay-TV companies assume that if you want Internet only, you must be a cord cutter. To make up for you not paying for the TV service and associated equipment, they have begun capping data use at around 300 Gigs per month. If you stream video for three or four hours a day (average TV-watching time in most U.S. households), you will easily exceed this allowance. This means you will be charged overage fees, and to avoid those fees you will be forced into a higher-priced data tier. This is the most important reason to use a TV antenna - stream only what you need and use the antenna for the rest.
You do need to have Internet in order to take advantage of a lot of streaming options like Netflix, Playstation Vue, Direct TV Now and others. If, however, you only need broadcast channels you can get an antenna and/or an over-the-air DVR, and watch broadcast TV only. As far as finding cheap internet, a lot of the time you’re subject to what options you have in your area. IN my area I have two providers that I usually go back and forth between finding the best deal and sticking with it for a couple of years. Good luck!
This can get a little tricky because sometimes Cable providers offer promotional packages that give you Internet service at a lower cost if you also subscribe to TV. In other words, it appears to cost less to have Internet and TV than it does to have just Internet. If this is the case, keep in mind that it's a promotional price and will go up when the promotion period ends. Also keep in mind that the "TV service" part of that package generally does not include a DVR, the fancy menus or many of the Cable shows that you currently watch.

As the name suggests, cable internet works by using the same analog cables traditionally used to deliver cable television. These copper coaxial cables travel from your home to the a neighborhood node, and then to your service provider. Cable internet has a wider bandwidth than DSL, and unlike fiber, it’s already installed in most homes, which makes cable service convenient for getting high-speed internet with minimal installation. And if you’re interested in getting cable TV as well, bundling cable services can often save you money over getting the services separately.


Fiber-Optic TV is one of the newest types of television technology. Light travels through glass or plastic cables to deliver all of your favorite channels. These cables are much stronger than the copper cables used for cable TV, and they can transmit data across further distances while still maintaining the same high quality picture and sound. Fiber is typically the most reliable option, because the connection isn't affected by power outages or bad weather like cable and satellite TV are. Many fiber TV providers offer bundles with fiber internet, which is extremely fast. One of the downfalls to fiber television is that it has limited availability because it's a newer technology, so it may not be offered in your area. These fiber cables must also be installed perfectly by a professional to function properly, which is part of the reason that availability is limited. Fiber TV tends to be a more expensive option, but its incredible HD quality and reliability are worth the price!
Roku. While Apple and Amazon might be household names, Roku quietly delivers the best overall service for those who want to dump cable. Roku was one of the first to develop a box dedicated to streaming video, it supports a wide variety of streaming services, and best of all, it is a neutral manufacturer so it works with almost any television or service. You can buy Roku as a stick, which is a small key-like device that your stick into your TV's HDMI port, or a more-powerful box. 

A typical triple play bundle package that includes home phone, satellite TV, and a high-speed reliable internet connection costs approximately 30 to 50 percent less than purchasing each one of these services separately. Over the course of a year or two, this will certainly be a blessing to you, as you will be able to save hundreds of dollars in the meantime.


For more package options (and more channels) with Charter Spectrum, you’ll have to bundle with internet and phone service. Those bundles come at a fair price though, and include free installation (normally $35), WiFi set up (typically $10), and DVR service ($13 per month). That’s a potential savings upwards of $200 in one year. Spectrum also includes HD channels free of charge.

I like new Roku Streaming Stick+ quite a bit and have one set up on the TV in my bedroom. I spent several days testing it out with a couple of TVs around my house. The Streaming Stick+ is geared for 4K HDR, but can be used with TVs that only stream 1080p. I found it to be really solid with streaming Netflix and Amazon Video even when far away from my WiFi router. If you’re looking for lower priced streamer, then check out the new line of Roku media players. If any of them are out of stock at Amazon, you can buy them directly from Roku. Roku is currently offering a free trials of DirecTV Now and HBO Now with an activation of a new Roku device.
Way back when, cable and satellite TV were initially sold to consumers as an add-on: Get all of your local channels, along with uncut movies, more televisions programs and additional sports. But pulling the plug on cable doesn’t necessarily mean you can just go back to broadcast networks only. Modern homes and apartments are no longer wired-up with antennas the way they were 30 years ago. Indoor HDTV antennas are available at prices ranging from under $20 to move than $150, but the quality of the signal and the number of channels that come in clearly vary depending on external factors, like whether you live near mountains or skyscrapers.

TV providers are stepping up the game when it comes to DVR and television equipment capabilities. Scroll through thousands of on demand titles, record all of your favorite shows, and watch your stored recordings on multiple TV's at once: all from a single box. Specific recording features will vary by provider and receiver. The DIRECTV Genie is the premier HD DVR on the market. With Genie you can connect up to 8 TV's to a single DVR, record up to 5 HD programs at once, and browse through over 10,000 On Demand titles. Got home too late to catch that new episode of your favorite show that you've been waiting all week to see? No problem. You can rewind live TV up to 72 hours with Genie, so you'll never miss a premiere ever again. Control what your children can watch. Schedule or watch recordings from your laptop, tablet, or phone. Discover new programs that you'll love with Genie's personalized recommendation feature. The possibilities are endless! Make sure to check the fine print when it comes to equipment fees. Some providers include the DVR for free, while others charge a monthly fee.


What you get: PlayStation Vue can be configured to resemble an expansive, if somewhat pricey, cable-TV-style programming plan. After recent price hikes, packages range from a $45-per-month basic option to an $80 Ultra plan with about 90 channels, including premium channels such as HBO and Showtime. You get local channels in many major markets and a cloud DVR for recording shows. Vue supports up to five simultaneous users. There's now also a mobile option, so new users can sign up and start watching the service directly from mobile phones, tablets, or PCs even when they’re outside the home.

You'll find that in the majority of cities, cable companies effectively carve out their own territories. This means that you may end up with just one choice when it comes time to look into "Which cable providers in my area serve my address?" If this happens to be the case in your location, there may be other options aside from cable, which I'll go into later.
Not all media streamers offer the same channels: Smart TVs and Blu-ray players, as well as standalone media streamers, don't all offer the same selection of channels and services. Roku devices are the most comprehensive with up to 4,500 possibilities, but there are other media streamers available (such as Amazon Fire TV, Google Chromecast, and others) that may not have the channels and services you desire.
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